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As Many as 130,000 Lives Could Be Saved the Next 3 Months If Everyone Wore a Mask
Experts say mask wearing can reduce COVID-19 cases and deaths as well as help the U.S. economy. Halfpoint Images/Getty Images
•   Experts say if 95 percent of people wore a face mask, it could save nearly 130,000 lives between now and March 1.
•   They add that mask wearing could help businesses stay open as COVID-19 cases are reduced.
•   The incoming Biden administration plans to work with governors and mayors to encourage people across the country to wear masks.

“We are truly at war with this virus… But we have a secret weapon – the American spirit in each and every one of you. So please – be a Patriot. Limit interactions outside your household and wear a mask.” That plea via Twitter was made by U.S. Surgeon General Jerome M. Adams, MD, MPH, as the COVID-19 pandemic surges at unprecedented numbers. As of Wednesday, more than 250,000 people in the United States have died from COVID-19. More than 11 million have tested positive for the new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, that causes the disease. Over the past week, we’ve averaged more than 150,000 new cases per day.

In addition, a new projection from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) at the University of Washington predicts the COVID-19 death toll could surpass 438,000 by March 1 if current trends continue. The IHME scientists note, however, that this death toll isn’t inevitable. They say we could save nearly 130,000 livesTrusted Source if 95 percent of the U.S. population wore a mask.  Even if only 85 percent wore a mask, nearly 96,000 deaths could be prevented.

More reasons to wear a mask
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now says wearing a mask also protects you, not just the people around you.In an updated scientific briefTrusted Source released last week, the CDC says it has confirmed seven studies that show wearing a mask also protects the person wearing it. And the report says by wearing a mask, you can help protect the economy, too.

The CDC says a data analysis shows that just a 15 percent increase in mask wearing could prevent the need for lockdowns and help reduce economic losses up to $1 trillion. A new study published in the journal Aerosol Science and Technology suggests that a simple cloth mask can be quite effective. UCLA researchers reported that a cough could send particles more than 6 feet away without any face covering. But a two-layer cloth mask reduced cough particles by 77 percent.

“That’s actually more than I expected before I started the experiment, that’s good news,” said Yifang Zhu, PhD, a professor of environmental health sciences at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health. She said surgical masks you can purchase at a pharmacy worked even better. “The disposable masks we tested are actually quite effective. They can offer somewhere around 90 percent reduction of particles,” Zhu told Healthline. But she said face shields offered little protection. “Aerosol droplets just come around the gaps and are transported away very easily,” Zhu said.


New research suggests that wearing masks not only protects others from the spread of COVID-19, but may reduce the amount of virus that gets through to the wearer as well, resulting in less severe illness if they do become sick. Getty Images
•   It has been thought that mask wearing mainly benefits the people around you.
•   However, scientists are beginning to speculate that masks may also help the wearer.
•   It is known that a lower viral dose can lead to less severe illness.
•   Wearing a mask may reduce the amount of virus that gets through to the wearer.
•   Less virus getting through may translate to less severe illness if you do become sick.

Up until now, scientists have thought that the main benefits of wearing a mask is to protect other people. Now, however, some are beginning to speculate that mask wearing may provide a form of protection for the wearer as well. They say that masks may reduce the amount of virus that reaches a person, potentially leading to less severe illness if you do become infected. This means that COVID-19 may be able to spread throughout the population, getting us closer to herd immunity, without affecting people as badly as it otherwise would. In fact, mask wearing may be one reason we have seen so many cases of mild and asymptomatic illness.

How masks protect other people
COVID-19 is believed to be spread by the virus-containing droplets  that are released when people speak, cough, or breathe.  If these droplets land in another person’s mouth or nose or are inhaled from the air, they can infect that person and make them sick. According to Robert F. Garry, Jr., PhD, professor of microbiology and immunology, at Tulane University School of Medicine, a mask provides a physical barrier to catch those droplets. In fact, cloth masks can block about 40 to 60 percent of the droplets, said Garry. N95 masks  can do an even better job, blocking 95 percent of very small particles, including viruses. Masks capture these droplets before they can reach other people and infect them.

How masks might protect the wearer as well
Garry said it goes back to the idea that the size of the inoculum (the dose of the virus) determines how sick an individual will get. Usually, with viruses, the higher the dose, the sooner symptoms develop and the more severe the illness is, he explained. Based upon this idea, Monica Gandhi, MD, MPH, and her colleagues at the University of California, San Francisco, have proposed that mask wearing could help reduce the severity of COVID-19 when people do become ill.

If a lesser quantity of respiratory droplets make it through to the mask wearer, this means they receive a lower dose of the virus. A lower dose means that, even if the person becomes ill, it may not be as severe a case. Gandhi noted that there is evidence in the literature indicating that this may indeed be happening with COVID-19. In a recent hamster study that simulated masking, the “masked” hamsters were less likely to get COVID-19. They also had milder disease when they did get it.

In addition, epidemiologic evidence in settings like cruise ships and food processing plants has shown higher rates of asymptomatic infection after mask mandates were instituted. She also pointed to a paper  that suggests that universal masking in situations like hospitals has led to asymptomatic infections. According to the paper, many healthcare workers have had positive antibody testing for COVID-19 even though the workers didn’t know they had been infected. Finally, she said, many countries that have population-level masking have done better at keeping their rates of severe disease and death down.

How mask wearing can help while we wait for a vaccine
Gandhi said she believes population-wide masking could play an important role in getting us through the pandemic. Masks reduce transmission, she said. She and her team also believe they can reduce the severity of disease when people do become infected. “We suggest mask mandates like the one called for by former VP Joe Biden,” she said. She also feels that universal masking is a strategy that may allow work and school to continue.
Rather than closing everything down when new cases emerge, Gandhi suggests that a better plan may be to monitor for upticks in severe illness, hospitalizations, and death before instituting lockdowns. We may see cases, she said, “but, as long as they are asymptomatic, public health officials should be concentrating more on decreasing rates of morbidity from this infection and monitoring closely for severe illness, not asymptomatic disease.”
In a report published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine on September 8, 2020, Gandhi’s team further pointed out that asymptomatic infections could actually be beneficial to the general population. “Exposing society to SARS-CoV-2 [the virus that causes COVID-19] without the unacceptable consequences of severe illness with public masking could lead to greater community-level immunity and slower spread as we await a vaccine,” the authors wrote.

The bottom line
Not only does mask wearing protect those around us, it may also protect us. A lower viral dose is known to be linked to less severe illness. Masks may reduce the dose, leading to milder, or no symptoms, if we do contract COVID-19. Universal mask wearing can play a vital role while we wait for the development of a vaccine. It can slow transmission and may possibly reduce the severity of illness, easing the burden on society.

Homeopathic & Ayurveda / 15 natural remedies for a sore throat ?
« Last post by Shahjalal Prodhania on November 23, 2020, 06:54:19 PM »
15 natural remedies for a sore throat ?

A sore throat can be very uncomfortable. The main symptoms are pain and irritation in the throat, especially when swallowing.

A sore throat occurs as part of the body’s immune response to viral or bacterial infections.

The natural immune response leads to inflammation and swelling of the mucous membranes in the throat.

However, several natural remedies may provide relief, including some that are supported by scientific evidence.

Here are 15 natural sore throat remedies.

1. Marshmallow root

People have used extracts from the marshmallow plant, Althaea officinalis, to treat sore throats and other conditions since ancient times.

Its root contains a gelatin-like substance called mucilage that coats and lubricates the throat when a person swallows it.

Researchers have tested lozenges containing marshmallow root in animals and found them to be effective and nontoxic, even at very high doses. It may also help soothe a dry cough.

Marshmallow root infusion
Here is a recipe for a cold marshmallow root infusion to soothe a painful throat:


1) 1 liter (l) of cold water

2) 1 ounce, or 28 grams (g), of dried marshmallow root


1) Fill a jar with the cold water.

2) Place the marshmallow root in cheesecloth and tie it up in a bundle.

3) Lower the bundle into the water until it is completely submerged.

4) Place the tied end of the bundle over the lip of the jar, place the lid on the jar, and screw it on.

5) Infuse overnight, or for at least 8 hours, then remove the bundle.

6) Pour the desired amount into a glass. Add an optional sweetener of choice.

When it is ready, take sips throughout the day to help reduce symptoms.

Choosing high quality dried marshmallow root from a reliable source is important.

Bottom line: Marshmallow has a long history of use for treating sore throats. Its root contains a gelatinous substance, called mucilage, which coats and soothes the throat.

2. Sage and echinacea

Sage is a popular herb in cooking, but it also has several medicinal uses.

Sage, also called Salvia officinalis, originated in the Mediterranean. Now, people grow it around the world.

Sage may help with many inflammatory conditions, and controlled studies suggest that it can help relieve throat pain.

In one study, a sage-echinacea spray was slightly more effective at reducing throat pain than a chlorhexidine lidocaine spray. Neither treatment caused any negative side effects.

Echinacea is another herb that people use in traditional medicine. It can fight bacteria, reduce inflammation, and help treat respiratory conditions.

Sage-echinacea throat spray
Follow this recipe to make sage-echinacea throat spray at home:


1) 1 teaspoon (tsp) of ground sage
2) 1 tsp of ground echinacea
3) 1/2 cup of water


1) Boil the water.

2) Place the sage and echinacea in a small jar, then fill it with boiling water.

3) Let it steep for 30 minutes.

4) Pour the mixture through a strainer. Add 1/2 cup of hard liquor if desired.

5) Place the mixture in a small spray bottle and spray into the throat every 2 hours or as needed.

Bottom line: Research suggests that a sage-echinacea spray can help relieve a sore throat as effectively as antiseptic medication spray.

3. Apple cider vinegar

Apple cider vinegar is a natural health tonic. It has been a staple in folk medicine remedies for centuries. Its main active ingredient, acetic acid, helps fight bacteria.

The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates, known as the father of medicine, prescribed a combination of apple cider vinegar and honey, called oxymel, to treat flu symptoms, such as coughs and sore throats.

To help relieve throat pain, drink 1 cup of warm water mixed with 1 tablespoon (tbsp) of apple cider vinegar and 1 optional tbsp of honey.

The possible risks of apple cider vinegar include tooth decay and digestive problems. Learn more here.

People can find apple cider vinegar in supermarkets, health stores, and online.

Bottom line: Apple cider vinegar has antibacterial properties and, when a person mixes it in small amounts with warm water, could help relieve a sore throat.

4. Saltwater gargle
Gargling with salt water is a well-known natural remedy to get rid of a sore throat.

The salt helps reduce swelling by pulling water out of the throat tissue. It may also help kill harmful microbes in the throat.

Combine 1 cup of warm water with 1 tsp of salt and stir to dissolve. Gargle with a mouthful of this mixture for 30 seconds once per hour.

Bottom line: Gargling hourly with warm salt water may help reduce swelling and ease throat discomfort.

5. Honey

Honey is a sweetener that people often combine with other natural ingredients to soothe a sore throat.

People use honey as a medicine because it has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects.

In addition to helping fight infection and providing pain relief, honey can also make certain remedies taste better.

Honey may be especially effective when a person combines it with warm water and apple cider vinegar or herbs. Some people choose to use raw honey or manuka honey.

However, children under the age of 1 should avoid honey. Their guts have not yet acquired healthy bacteria that can fight off some germs, such as botulism spores, that sometimes occur in honey.

Also, people who avoid sugar or follow a low carb diet may want to choose another remedy, since honey is a form of sugar. It contains 17.3 g of carbohydrates per tablespoon.

Bottom line: Honey can help relieve throat pain, particularly when a person combines it with vinegar or herbs in warm water. Never give honey to children under 1.

6. Licorice root

The licorice plant, also called Glycyrrhiza glabra, is native to Europe and South Asia.

Best known for its sweet flavor, licorice also has uses in traditional medicine.

It has properties similar to aspirin that may help reduce sore throat pain. It also has antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory effects.

However, there is no research into its ability to relieve illness-related sore throats.

That said, studies have reported that after surgery, licorice could significantly reduce throat pain due to breathing tube removal.

One study found that gargling with licorice water before surgery reduced the risk of getting a sore throat by 50%, compared with gargling with sugar water.

To make licorice tea, combine ground licorice root with hot water, let it steep for 5 minutes, then strain it prior to drinking.

Licorice root tea is also available at natural grocery stores and online.

Bottom line: Drinking or gargling licorice tea may help soothe a sore throat.

7. Lemon water

Lemon water is a refreshing beverage that may also reduce the throat pain that occurs during a cold or flu.

Lemon contains vitamin C and other powerful antioxidants. These compounds fight inflammation and reduce oxidative stress, which are common markers of disease.

Lemon also increases the amount of saliva the body produces, which can help keep the mucous membranes moist.

Try combining lemon with warm water and a little honey or salt water to maximize its benefits.

Bottom line: Lemon water contains vitamin C and compounds that can soothe a sore throat and assist with healing.

8. Ginger root tea

Ginger is a spice with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects that may help relieve throat pain.

Some laboratory studies have found that ginger extract can kill some bacteria and viruses that cause respiratory illnesses. It can also reduce inflammation in people with tuberculosis, which is a lung disease.

Ginger tea is available from most markets and online retailers. People can also make their own from fresh ginger.

Ginger root tea
Follow this recipe to make ginger root tea at home:


1) fresh ginger root
2) 1 l of water
3) 1 tbsp (21 g) of honey or a sweetener of choice
4) a squeeze of lemon juice.


1) Peel the ginger root and grate it into a small bowl.

2) Boil the water in a large saucepan, then remove it from the heat.

3) Place 1 tbsp of grated ginger into the saucepan and cover it with a lid.

4) Let it steep for 10 minutes.

5) Add the sweetener and lemon juice, then stir to combine.

This tea works well reheated as needed or served cold.

Bottom line: Ginger root tea may help fight infection, reduce inflammation, and relieve sore throat pain.

9. Coconut oil

Coconut oil is a versatile food with several health benefits.

Animal studies suggest that it may help fight infection and reduce inflammation in areas exposed to it.

Coconut oil is also very soothing because it helps lubricate the mucous membranes in the throat.

Here are a few ideas to try:

1) Add a spoonful to hot tea or hot cocoa.

2) Add a spoonful to soup.

3) Put a spoonful in the mouth, allowing it to melt and coat the throat.

Limit coconut oil consumption to about 2 tbsp (30 milliliters [ml]) per day, as it can have a laxative effect at higher dosages. When using coconut oil for the first time, start with 1 tsp (5 ml) at a time to minimize potential side effects.

Bottom line: Coconut oil is very soothing on the throat and may have anti-inflammatory effects. Take up to 2 tbsp (30 ml) per day alone or in warm beverages.

10. Cinnamon

Cinnamon is a fragrant and delicious spice with a high antioxidant content. It can also provide antibacterial benefits.

In Chinese medicine, cinnamon is a traditional remedy for colds, flus, and sore throats.

Cinnamon tea is available for purchase in most grocery stores, in both herbal and regular varieties, and online. People can also add cinnamon to herbal or black tea.

Another option is to make cinnamon almond milk, which may be especially soothing for a sore throat.

Cinnamon almond milk

Follow this recipe to make cinnamon almond milk at home:


1 cup of almond milk
1/2 tsp (2.5 ml) of ground cinnamon
1/8 tsp (0.6 ml) of baking soda
1 tbsp (15 ml) of honey or a sweetener of choice


1) Place the cinnamon and baking soda in a saucepan and mix together.

2) Add the almond milk and mix again until it is well combined.

3) Heat the mixture until it just begins to simmer, then remove it from the heat.

4) Stir in the honey or sweetener.

Bottom line: Cinnamon may help fight throat pain and infection due to a cold or flu. Try drinking cinnamon tea, or adding cinnamon to a warm beverage, to ease throat discomfort.

11. Plenty of fluids
Although swallowing may be uncomfortable, drinking plenty of water or other fluids will ultimately make the throat feel better. It is important to keep the throat’s mucous membranes hydrated so that they can heal.

Drink tea, herbal infusions, water, or other beverages at whatever temperature feels most comfortable.

Bottom line: Staying hydrated, by drinking enough fluid through the day, will allow the throat to remain moist so that it can heal.

12. Chicken soup
Chicken soup is a well-known natural cold and sore throat remedy. It is also a comfort food that allows people to get more fluids when they are sick.

Try adding garlic to the soup. Garlic contains bioactive compounds that can also provide benefits during times of illness.

A person can buy canned chicken soup ahead of time and store it until needed, or they can prepare a homemade chicken soup.

Bottom line: Chicken soup is a comfort food that may help soothe a sore throat. Adding garlic may provide additional benefits.

13. Peppermint tea
Peppermint tea contains anti-inflammatory compounds and is very soothing to the throat. The mint may also slightly numb the throat, thereby relieving pain.

Peppermint tea is caffeine-free, and its naturally sweet taste often requires no additional sweetener.

There are many peppermint herbal teas in stores and online.

To make peppermint tea at home, steep fresh peppermint leaves in boiling water for 3–5 minutes, then strain off the leaves.

Bottom line: Peppermint tea is a tasty, refreshing beverage that may help reduce inflammation and throat discomfort.

14. Chamomile tea
Chamomile is a daisy-like plant that people have used for medicinal purposes since ancient times.

Some research suggests that chamomile tea promotes restful sleep, which is important for healing.

Other studies have found that chamomile may help fight infection and reduce pain.

Chamomile tea has a pleasant, mild aroma and flavor. Like other herbal teas, chamomile contains no caffeine.

Chamomile tea is widely available at grocery stores and online.

Bottom line: Chamomile tea may promote restorative sleep, help fight infection, and soothe sore throat pain.

15. Herbal lozenges
Teas, infusions, and other drinks are soothing and provide hydration, but sometimes sucking on a throat lozenge can also be comforting.

There are herbal throat lozenges available for purchase online and in some natural grocery stores. People can also make homemade throat lozenges with some of the herbs listed in this article.

Slippery elm is a popular herb for lozenges. It contains mucilage that coats and soothes the throat, similar to marshmallow root.

Try making lozenges ahead of time to have them on hand when a sore throat develops.

Bottom line: Purchase herbal throat lozenges or make a batch ahead of time to stay prepared for a sore throat.


Over-the-counter medications also can help ease a sore throat, including:

1) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): NSAIDs relieve inflammation and sore throat pain without causing stomach discomfort. Two common types are ibuprofen and aspirin.

2) Sprays: Lidocaine sprays and other numbing throat sprays can effectively reduce throat pain.

3) Lozenges: Throat lozenges containing lidocaine or other types of numbing medicine can help soothe a sore throat.

Bottom line: Several medications — including NSAIDs, throat sprays, and lozenges — can provide relief from a sore throat. These are available in stores and online.

Take-home message

No matter how healthy a person is, everyone gets a sore throat occasionally.

However, there are many steps a person can take to soothe a sore throat and encourage healing.

Be sure to see a doctor if a sore throat lasts for longer than a few days or is extremely painful. Severe or persistent pain may indicate strep throat, tonsillitis, or another serious infection that requires medical treatment.

Siurce: Medical News  Today

Picture source:

A growing amount of evidence shows us why wearing face masks is one of the most effective things we can do to stop the spread of COVID-19.
•   The CDC continues to advise wearing face masks to prevent the spread of COVID-19.
•   Masks work by creating a physical barrier to the spread of virus-containing respiratory droplets.
•   Growing evidence supports their effectiveness.
•   While many Americans have objected to wearing masks, experts say their concerns are unfounded.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) continues to strongly advise the wearing of face masks to prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. On July 14, 2020 the CDC Director Dr. Robert Redfield said in a press release: “Cloth face coverings are one of the most powerful weapons we have to slow and stop the spread of the virus — particularly when used universally within a community setting.” While these recommendations have been met with some skepticism among the public, scientific evidence continues to show that masks do work. As to the reasons why, the experts say the science is quite simple.
Why face masks work

Transmission of the coronavirus is thought to occur through respiratory droplets that are released when people speak, sneeze, or talk, according to Dr. MeiLan Han, a professor of medicine in the division of pulmonary and critical care at the University of Michigan. If these droplets land in the mouth or nose of people nearby, or are inhaled into the lungs, a person can contract the virus. Masks create a physical barrier that catches these droplets and prevents them from spreading as far into the surrounding air as they normally would.

Han said the masks become even more important because a significant proportion of people who get COVID-19 either don’t exhibit symptoms or there’s a delay before symptoms show up. Studies show, however, that these people can still transmit the virus to people around them. The data suggest that the use of face coverings can help limit the spread of the disease by these asymptomatic and presymptomatic individuals, said Han.
Growing evidence supports mask effectiveness

In the July 14, 2020 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), the authors of an editorial piece said that “the time is now” for universal mask wearing. In support of their opinion, they pointed to two case studies that were published that same day. The first study showed that a universal mask wearing policy in a Boston hospital system reduced the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Prior to the institution of the mask policy, new cases among healthcare workers who had either direct or indirect patient contact were increasing exponentially. After the policy was put into place, however, the proportion of symptomatic healthcare workers who tested positive for COVID-19 “steadily declined,” according to the report.

The editorial additionally spoke about a report  in the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) which showed that wearing a mask appeared to prevent two Missouri hairstylists from spreading the disease to their customers. Both stylists had continued to see customers for several days after developing symptoms, but wore face masks as per local government ordinance. Ninety-eight percent of their customers wore masks as well. Of the 139 customers that the stylists saw before being diagnosed, none developed COVID-19 symptoms during the follow-up period. None of their secondary contacts developed symptoms either. In addition, of the 67 clients who agreed to be tested, none were positive for the virus.
Answering the skeptics

Despite the scientific evidence supporting the wearing of masks, many Americans have voiced objections to their use. We asked Dr. Vinisha Amin, hospital medicine physician at University of Maryland Upper Chesapeake Health to counter some of the more frequently raised concerns and misinformed myths that are currently being spread.

1. Masks don’t work
“Let’s disintegrate that myth!” said Amin. “Masks are helpful and effective in protecting you and your loved ones from the virus.” “There is a plethora of scientific data and research to help solidify this recommendation,” she added. “In the scientific world, evidence-based medicine takes precedence, and we must put trust in our physicians and scientific community when they make such recommendations given that they are for your own and your loved ones’ medical/health safety,” Amin said.

2. They’re so uncomfortable to wear
“That means you have only tried one mask and gave up quickly on finding one that works well,” said Amin. “Yes, they may create humidity, but in that situation, wear a cotton material mask which is a more breathable material than polyester,” she advised.  “Yes, they might hurt your ears. In that situation find a mask where the elastic band that wraps around the ear is cloth covered or a softer elastic band which won’t irritate your skin,” she said. “Yes, they fog up glasses. I have the same issue,” she added. “In that situation, place your eyeglasses over the mask on the bridge of your nose to help hold the mask in place and also help mitigate the fog under your glasses.”

3. I’m worried about carbon dioxide building up and making me sick
“There is absolutely no scientific reasoning that supports the claim that there is carbon dioxide buildup due to masks,” said Amin. “Healthcare professionals such as our physicians and surgeons have been utilizing tighter and more impenetrable masks for decades, yet we are still able to breathe through them,” she said. She continued, “Masks allow for oxygen to penetrate in just as readily as they allow for carbon dioxide to penetrate out.”

4. I’m not at high risk
Amin acknowledged that the most vulnerable people are those with comorbid conditions or those who are immunocompromised. She noted, however, that “although you may be healthy and fit, you might not even be aware that you have acquired the virus and could be shedding high viral loads to your vulnerable loved ones at home.” “We are all co-dependent on each other for our well-being and health as a community,” she explained.

The bottom line
There’s growing evidence that masks do work in preventing the spread of COVID-19. Masks works in a very simple way by capturing the virus-containing droplets we emit when we speak, cough, or sneeze. Although the principle behind masks is a simple one, they’re a very important part of containing the disease. Experts say they work best when we all cooperate and wear them.


By Alan Mozes HealthDay Reporter

Vitamin D, fish oil supplements and weight training have long been touted for their health benefits, but for healthy seniors, none of them -- either in combination or alone -- boosts physical or mental performance or prevents broken bones, Swiss researchers report. For three years, they tracked more than 2,100 men and women (average age: 74) who were randomly assigned to a program involving one or more of the three health interventions. The upshot: "The results suggest that additional vitamin D and omega-3 [fish oil] intake in active 70-plus adults without previous illnesses, carries no benefit for the risk of non-vertebral fractures, or for muscle and memory function," said study leader Dr. Heike Bischoff-Ferrari, head of geriatrics and aging research at University Hospital Zurich.
But the takeaway was not entirely discouraging.

Ongoing analysis suggests taking a gram a day of fish oil reduced seniors' overall infection risk by 11%. And some specific infection risks dropped even more -- including a dramatic 62% reduction in urinary tract infections, a common ailment in older folks. Even if their risk of broken bones was unimproved, participants who took 2000 IUs of vitamin D every day saw a "significant" drop in their systolic (upper) blood pressure readings, Bischoff-Ferrari said. Vitamin D supplementation was also linked to a 16% drop in overall infection risk among 70- to 74-year-olds. "In view of the safety and affordability of the supplements, as well as the high mortality rate from infections in older adults, these results are relevant for public health," she said.

Researchers also tested the impact of two exercise regimens: a strength-training program and an "attention control exercise program" for joint flexibility. Each involved three 30-minute sessions per week. Some participants either exercised or took supplements; others did a mix of both. For participants without major preexisting health problems, researchers found no statistically significant health benefit from the regimens. They said most participants started the study in excellent shape, which may have limited the chance to show bigger benefits. "Over 80% were moderately to highly physically active, and about half were healthy agers without comorbidities," Bischoff-Ferrari said. "In fact, all participants over the three years improved their blood pressure, their cognitive function and their lower extremity function."

Another complicating factor might be the amount of daily supplementation that was tested, said Lona Sandon, director of clinical nutrition at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, who reviewed the findings. "One of my first thoughts on this study is: Was the dose of intervention enough to cause a difference?" Sandon said. "The vitamin D dose was only 2000 IUs … [which is] considered the current upper limit for vitamin D. However, there is much scientific controversy about just how much vitamin D really is the upper limit and needed to alter blood levels. We make much more vitamin D from sunlight than this."

The fish oil dose was also relatively low, Sandon noted. Studies showing benefit for things like lowering inflammation use much higher doses, and strength training was also below current recommendations of two hours a week, she added. "Only about two-thirds of the participants self-reported meeting the 30-minutes, three days/week [requirement]," Sandon pointed out. "So do the results surprise me? Not at all with those doses." Her bottom line: "Getting adequate vitamin D in food and from sunshine is good for us and essential," Sandon said. "Omega-3s are essential nutrients for the body and proper functioning, too.  Exercise does help keep us physically and mentally functioning better. People should not give up on eating healthy and keeping moving. I do not see a downside to any of these things."

1. Heike Bischoff-Ferrari, M.D., Dr.P.H., chair, Department of Geriatrics and Aging Research, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland, and director, Center on Aging and Mobility, University Hospital and City Hospital Waid, Zurich;
2. Lona Sandon, Ph.D., R.D.N., L.D., associate professor, Department of Clinical Nutrition, and director, master of clinical nutrition coordinated program, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas; Journal of the American Medical Association, Nov. 10, 2020
Copyright © 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.
নতুন করোনাভাইরাসের সংক্রমণ ঠেকাতে মাস্ক ব্যবহারের কথা বলা হচ্ছে। বিষয়টি জনপরিসরে ছড়িয়ে পড়লে শুধু বাংলাদেশ নয়, বিশ্বের বিভিন্ন অঞ্চলেই মাস্কের সংকট দেখা দিয়েছিল। কোনো কোনো ক্ষেত্রে এর দামও অত্যধিক বেড়ে গিয়েছিল। আসুন জেনে নিই মাস্ক ব্যবহারের ক্ষেত্রে বিশ্ব স্বাস্থ্য সংস্থা কী বলছে?

কখন ও কেন মাস্ক ব্যবহার করবেন
* নিজে সুস্থ থাকলে করোনাভাইরাসে আক্রান্ত হয়েছেন বা সন্দেহ করা হচ্ছে—এমন ব্যক্তির শুশ্রূষা করার সময়ই শুধু আপনার মাস্ক পরার প্রয়োজন রয়েছে।
* হাঁচি বা কাশি থাকলে মাস্ক ব্যবহার করুন, যেন আপনার শরীরে করোনাভাইরাস থাকলে তা অন্যদের মধ্যে না ছড়ায়।
* মাস্ক ব্যবহার তখনই কার্যকর, যখন আপনি অ্যালকোহলভিত্তিক হ্যান্ড রাব (বাজারে থাকা সাধারণ হেক্সিসল বা অনুরূপ পণ্য) বা সাবান-পানি দিয়ে ঘন ঘন হাত পরিষ্কার করেন।
* মাস্ক ব্যবহার করতে হলে এর ব্যবহারবিধি জেনেই করা উচিত।

কীভাবে ব্যবহার করবেন
* মাস্ক পরার আগে হাত (সাবান-পানি দিয়ে অন্তত ২০ সেকেন্ড বা হ্যান্ড রাব দিয়ে) পরিষ্কার করে নিন।
* মাস্ক পরার সময় এর সামনের অংশ ধরবেন না।
* নাক ও মুখ মাস্ক দিয়ে ঢেকে ফেলুন এবং মনে রাখবেন, মুখ ও মাস্কের মধ্যে যেন কোনো ফাঁকা স্থান না থাকে।
* ব্যবহারের সময় মাস্ক স্পর্শ করা থেকে বিরত থাকুন। আর যদি স্পর্শ করেন, তবে হাত (সাবান-পানি দিয়ে অন্তত ২০ সেকেন্ড বা হ্যান্ড রাব দিয়ে) পরিষ্কার করে নিন।
* ব্যবহৃত মাস্কটি আর্দ্র বা ভেজা বা স্যাঁতসেঁতে মনে হওয়ামাত্রই তা বদলে ফেলুন। ডিসপোজিবল বা একবার ব্যবহারের জন্য তৈরি মাস্ক বারবার ব্যবহার করবেন না।
* মাস্ক অপসারণের সময় এর সামনের অংশ স্পর্শ করবেন না। মাস্ক খুলে ফেলার সঙ্গে সঙ্গে তা ঢাকনা দেওয়া ময়লার বাক্সে ফেলুন।
* মাস্ক অপসারণের পর হাত পরিষ্কার করে নিন।


Many diabetes doctors and care specialists are saying they’ve been getting more frequent questions from patients about flu shots this year due to the continuing COVID-19 pandemic. Their answer: Getting the flu vaccine is more important than ever for people with diabetes (PWDs), because contracting the flu could weaken the immune system, leading to fluctuating and higher glucose levels — which puts us at elevated risk for COVID-19 and its effects on the body. Surprisingly, stats show that the general public isn’t thinking about the flu as much as they ought to be.

A September 2020 survey from C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital at the University of Michigan found that only 1 in 3 parents agree it’s more important to get a flu shot this year, and nearly 1 in 3 won’t be vaccinating their kids for the season. With that, some health experts describe the potential for a“twindemic” of both COVID-19 and flu in the United States this winter. But for PWDs, getting a flu shot is as critical as it’s ever been, says Davida Kruger, a nurse practitioner and diabetes care and education specialist (DCES) at Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, Michigan. “We do not want folks with diabetes to have to deal with anything more on top of everything else,” she said.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) flags this in a yellow notification box at the top of its flu and diabetes pageTrusted Source, calling out how critical it is for those with diabetes, asthma, and other chronic conditions to get a flu vaccine. In New York, DCES Margaret Pellizzari agrees. She says that at Northwell Health pediatric endocrinology clinics, they’ve stepped up awareness on the need for flu vaccinations this year.

They cite the American Diabetes Association guidance specifically, which encourages PWDs and their families to get a flu shot as well as a pneumonia vaccine each year. “We state the rationale for this practice and hope (patients) are able to make a reasonable decision to stay as protected as possible,” she told DiabetesMine. “We discuss the fact that while the vaccine may not be 100 percent protective, it may minimize the severity if a PWD catches the flu despite vaccination.”
Headache / 19 natural remedies for a headache ?
« Last post by Shahjalal Prodhania on November 22, 2020, 01:04:40 PM »
    19 natural remedies for a headache ?

    Headaches are a very common form of pain and can be a nuisance when someone has one. Rather than reaching for over-the-counter painkillers, there are many natural methods that people can try to help them get rid of a headache.

    In this article, we look at a range of home and natural remedies for headaches. People can try many of these remedies right away, and some of them might help to prevent headaches in the future.

    1. Water

    Drinking enough water may help prevent headaches or reduce their severity.

    Dehydration can be an underlying cause of many simple headaches. It may also alter how a person feels, acts, or thinks.

    As a study in the journal Antioxidants notes, even slight dehydration may alter how people think and function, making them feel worse, with or without a headache.

    Water may help make someone in this situation feel better, although some studies are more cautious.

    A critical reading of one study published in the Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice noted that drinking water did not reduce how long people had their headaches, but it did make them subjectively feel better.

    Staying hydrated may be as simple as carrying a water bottle around and sipping on it throughout the day. Eating foods high in liquid, such as fruits, smoothies, or soups, may also improve hydration.

    2. Cold compress

    A cold compress may be a simple headache solution that many people have on hand. Applying an ice pack or another cold item to the head or neck may help constrict the blood vessels and reduce inflammation in the area. Doing so could temporarily relieve headache pain.

    A study in Hawai’i Journal of Medicine & Public Health found that applying ice packs to the neck for 30 minutes significantly reduced pain in people with migraines.

    3. Warm compress

    In other cases, such as with a tension headache where the muscles are too tight, a warm compress may help relax these muscles and bring relief.

    A warm compress could be as simple as a heated towel. People may be able to get the same effect from a tepid shower or bath.

    4. Remove any pressure on the head

    In some cases, there is a physical reason for a headache. Check for anything that is putting too much pressure on the head. This may be a ponytail or bun that is too tight or a hat or headband that has been on too long.

    5. Turn down the lights

    Some people who get headaches become sensitive to light. Bright office lights or even the bright light from a smartphone may make symptoms worse.

    It may help to rest in a dark or dimly lit room while recovering from a headache.

    6. Try some herbal tea

    Herbal tea may be a useful way to add water to the diet while also enjoying the benefits of other natural compounds.

    For instance, ginger tea may help with a migraine. One 2013 study found that ginger powder had similar effects to a common medication for reducing migraines. A simple tea of warm water and ginger powder may help with symptoms.

    Other potentially calming teas include herbs such as peppermint, chamomile, and lavender.

    7. Exercise

    Exercise may help keep the body healthy and promote better circulation, which might reduce the chances of a headache showing up.

    One 2018 review of research published in the journal Children noted that too little exercise may actually influence headaches among adolescents. Regular, moderate exercise may help, such as briskly walking or riding a bike for 30 minutes a day.

    8. Check for food intolerance

    Sometimes food intolerances may be the underlying cause of symptoms such as a headache.

    If a headache seems to show up after meals, it may be helpful for people to keep a food journal of everything they eat each day. This may enable them to identify and avoid any foods that could trigger a headache.

    9. Sleep

    ifferent issues may lead to headaches, and sleep problems are among the more common ones.

    Getting too much or too little sleep or not sleeping soundly may influence a headache in some people, as they have not fully rested their body.

    As one paper in the journal Sleep notes, adults should try to get between 7 and 9 hours of sleep each night.

    10. Acupuncture

    Acupuncture is part of traditional Chinese medicine, where practitioners place small needles into the surface of the skin. The aim is not to cause pain but to stimulate the body’s own energy.

    The review published in Children notes that research has shown acupuncture to be an effective way to prevent migraines and tension headaches or reduce their frequency.

    11. Massaging pressure points

    Massaging certain pressure points may help relieve tension in the head and reduce a headache. Many people do this instinctively, such as rubbing the back of the neck or pinching the top of the nose when they feel stressed.

    There may be some truth to these instincts. Many people find that massaging the temples, jaw, or neck may help relieve tension and reduce a tension headache that comes from being too stressed.

    Some other areas to try massaging include the area between the eyebrows and the two spots at the base of the eyebrows on either side of the bridge of the nose. These spots may hold tension from the eyes or head, and massaging them could help relieve this tension.

    Massaging the neck near the base of the skull may also help release tension.

    12. Relaxation techniques

    Again, the review in Children notes that relaxation training and techniques may help many people with their headache symptoms while also reducing stress and anxiety.

    Relaxation techniques include practices such as deep-belly breathing, guided meditations, and actively focusing on relaxing the muscles.

    13. Caffeine

    Drinking a beverage with caffeine, such as coffee, tea, or soda, may sometimes help ease a headache.

    Some pain medications designed for headaches include caffeine, as the compound may improve their effectiveness.

    As a review published in the Journal of Headache and Pain notes, caffeine by itself may help reduce symptoms of a tension headache or migraine. Caffeine tends to relax the blood vessels, which may support circulation and ease tension.

    14. Essential oils

    Aromatherapy that uses some essential oils may also relieve symptoms of a headache. The 2018 review in Children noted that inhaling lavender essential oil for 15 minutes reduced the severity of headaches, according to one study.

    A separate study posted to the journal Pain suggested that peppermint oil is more effective at reducing tension headaches than a placebo.

    The smells of essential oils may bother some people, and experimenting with different oils that individuals find relaxing may be a way to ease headache symptoms.

    15. Magnesium

    A 2015 review published in the journal Nutrientssuggests that people who regularly experience cluster headaches or migraines may be more likely to have low magnesium levels.

    Adding magnesium to the diet, as a supplement, may help reduce headaches or prevent them in these cases.

    16. B vitamins

    Some B vitamins may help protect against headaches or reduce them. One 2015 review in Biomed Research International noted that vitamins, including folate and the vitamins B-6 and B-12, may all play a role in preventing migraine headaches or reducing headache symptoms.

    The B vitamins are readily available as supplements with several brands that people can buy online.

    17. Vitamin E

    Vitamin E may also play a role in headache symptoms. A 2015 review of vitamin supplementation noted that vitamin E might relieve headache pain and migraine symptoms from menstrual migraines with a low risk of side effects.

    This may be valuable for women who experience migraines during their menstrual cycle, as vitamin E may help keep their hormones balanced to prevent symptoms.

    The review did call for larger studies before making any claims about the vitamin, however.

    18. Limit alcohol intake

    Some people may not respond well to drinking too much alcohol. A headache is one of the more common side effects of a hangover. This may be because alcohol acts as a diuretic, making the body release more water via the urine.

    These kinds of headaches do not only occur with bouts of heavy drinking. Even with light or moderate drinking, alcohol may lead to mild dehydration symptoms in some people or make headaches worse.

    Anyone who is uncertain if alcohol affects them in this way could try limiting their drinking and seeing if it changes or prevents their symptoms.

    19. Avoid contact with chemicals or other strong smells

    For people who often experience migraines, avoiding strong smells may be a wise step to take when trying to prevent them.

    One 2013 study found that odors from sources such as perfumes or other strong-smelling chemicals may trigger migraines after just a few minutes of exposure.

    It may help if people avoid sources of these smells, such as department stores, others who wear a lot of perfume, or chemical smells from cleaning products.

    What type of headache is it?

    There are many different types of headache, and one natural remedy may be more suitable than another to ease a specific kind. Some common headache types include:

    [li]Tension headaches. The most common headache, these often occur after a person has become overstressed and their muscles have tensed. Pain appears in the middle and top of the head, which may feel as if it has a tight rubber band around it.[/li]

    [li]Sinus headaches. This type involves pain behind the eyes and nose and a general congested feeling in the head. A similar headache occurs when a person has a hangover.[/li]

    [li]Cluster headaches. These headaches may appear throughout the day, causing a stabbing, sharp pain that occurs in one spot of the head.[/li]

    [li]Migraines. Migraines usually cause a throbbing pain behind the eyes that grows and pulses throughout the head. The person may also become very sensitive to light, activity, or movement.[/li]


    There are several natural and home remedies that people can try to get rid of a headache without using medication. Some of these may work better with different types of headache.

    In the end, some headaches may still not respond to these methods, and taking an over-the-counter drug, such as ibuprofen (Advil), acetaminophen (Tylenol), or naproxen (Aleve), may bring relief.

    It is essential not to ignore a persistent headache. An ongoing symptom may be a sign of an underlying issue. People may want to discuss a persistent or particularly severe headache along with other symptoms with a doctor to find and resolve a problem.

    Source: Medical News Today

    Masks overview
    If COVID-19 is spreading in your community, stay safe by taking some simple precautions, such as physical distancing, wearing a mask, keeping rooms well ventilated, avoiding crowds, cleaning your hands, and coughing into a bent elbow or tissue. Check local advice where you live and work. Do it all!

    Make wearing a mask a normal part of being around other people.

    Masks should be used as part of a comprehensive strategy of measures to suppress transmission and save lives; the use of a mask alone is not sufficient to provide an adequate level of protection against COVID-19

    Here are the basics of how to wear a mask:

    Clean your hands before you put your mask on, as well as before and after you take it off.
    Make sure it covers both your nose, mouth and chin.
    Here are some specifics on what type of mask to wear and when, depending on how much virus is circulating where you live, where you go and who you are.

    Wear a fabric mask unless you’re in a particular risk group. This is especially important when you can’t stay physically distanced, particularly in crowded and poorly ventilated indoor settings.
    Wear a medical/surgical mask if you:
    Are over 60,
    Have underlying medical conditions
    Are feeling unwell, and/or
    Are looking after an ill family member.
    For more public advice on masks, read our Q&A and watch our videos. There is also a Q&A focused on masks and children.

    For health workers, medical masks are essential personal protective equipment when engaging with patients with suspected, probable or confirmed COVID-19. Respirator masks (such as FFP2, FFP3, N95, N99) should be used in settings where procedures generating aerosols are performed and must be fitted to ensure the right size is worn.
    Headache / What is causing this headache?
    « Last post by Shahjalal Prodhania on November 22, 2020, 12:31:20 PM »
    Headaches are a common health problem — most people experience them at some time.

    Factors that lead to headaches may be:

    • emotional, such as stress, depression, or anxiety
    • medical, such as migraine or high blood pressure
    • physical, such as an injury
    • environmental, such as the weather

    Frequent or severe headaches can affect a person’s quality of life. Knowing how to recognize the cause of a headache can help a person take appropriate action.


    A headache can affect any part of the head, and pain may be present in one or several locations.

    Headaches can cause various types of pain, and classifying the pain can help a doctor reach a diagnosis.

    Doctors also categorize headaches based on whether an underlying health condition is responsible for the pain. In other words, a headache may be primary or secondary, the International Headache Society note.

    Primary headaches

    A primary headache is not a symptom of an underlying illness. Instead, these headaches result from problems involving the structures of the head and neck.

    A primary headache may be due to overactivity of:

    • specific areas of the brain
    • blood vessels
    • muscles
    • nerves
    • brain chemicals

    Common types of primary headaches include cluster and tension headaches.

    Also, headaches can result from using medication for the pain too often. In this case, a person has a medication overuse headache, and this is another type of primary headache.

    Secondary headaches

    These are symptoms of underlying medical conditions. The cause of a secondary headache may be:

    • pregnancy
    • systemic conditions, such as an infection
    • hypothyroidism
    • giant cell arteritis
    • a stroke
    • a brain tumor

    Secondary headaches can result from serious health issues. It is important to seek medical advice if any headache:

    • is severe or disruptive
    • is persistent
    • occurs regularly
    • does not improve with medication
    • occurs alongside other symptoms, such as confusion, a fever, sensory changes, or stiffness in the neck

    What is causing this headache on the left side?


    Some of the various kinds of headache include:

    Tension-type headache

    This is a common form of primary headache. The pain usually arises gradually, in the middle of the day.

    A person may feel:

    • as if they have a tight band around their head
    • a constant, dull ache on both sides of the head
    • pain spreading to or from the neck

    Tension-type headaches may be:

    Episodic: These attacks usually last for a few hours, though they can last for several days.

    Chronic: This involves tension-type headaches occurring on 15 or more days per month for at least 3 months.

    Learn more about tension-type headaches.


    A migraine headache may involve pulsating, throbbing pain. It often occurs on one side of the head but may switch sides.

    During an episode, a person may also experience:

    • lightheadedness
    • sensory disturbances, such as changes in vision, known as an aura
    • sensitivity to light or sound
    • nausea, possibly with vomiting

    Migraine headaches are the second most common form of primary headache. They can significantly impact the quality of life.

    A migraine episode may last from a few hours to 2–3 days. The frequency of episodes can vary greatly; they may occur from once a week to once a year.

    Learn more about migraine.

    Medication overuse headache

    This was once known as a rebound headache. It occurs if a person uses medication to treat headaches too often.

    Medication overuse headaches tend to result from taking opiate-based medications, such as those that contain codeine or morphine.

    Beyond the headache, a person may experience:

    • neck pain
    • restlessness
    • a feeling of nasal congestion
    • reduced sleep quality

    Symptoms can vary, and the pain may change from day to day.

    According to The Migraine Trust, a charity organization based in the United Kingdom, people with migraine often develop medication overuse headaches. These can cause migraine episodes to occur more frequently and become more severe.

    Cluster headache

    These headaches usually last between 15 minutes and 3 hours, and they may occur one to eight times per day.

    Cluster headaches may arise frequently for 4–12 weeks, then disappear. They tend to happen at around the same time each day.

    Between the clusters, the person may have no symptoms. These remission periods may last months or years.

    Cluster headaches often involve:

    • brief but severe pain
    • pain around one eye
    • tearing or redness in the eye
    • a drooping eyelid
    • a blocked or runny nose
    • a smaller pupil in one eye
    • facial sweating

    Find out more about cluster headaches.

    Thunderclap headache

    These are sudden, severe headaches that people often describe as the “worst headache of my life.” They reach maximum intensity in under 1 minute and last longer than 5 minutes.

    A thunderclap headache is a secondary headache that can indicate a life-threatening condition, such as:

    • an aneurysm
    • reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome
    • meningitis
    • pituitary apoplexy
    • bleeding in the brain
    • a blood clot in the brain

    People who experience these sudden, severe headaches should receive immediate medical care.


    Rest and pain relief medication are the main treatments for headaches.

    Options include:

    • over-the-counter pain relief medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
    • prescription pain relief medications
    • preventive medication for specific conditions, such as migraine
    • other treatments for underlying conditions

    To prevent medication overuse headaches, it is crucial to follow a doctor’s guidance.

    Treating medication overuse headaches involves reducing or stopping the medication. A doctor can help develop a plan to ease off the medication safely. In extreme cases, a person may need a short hospital stay to manage withdrawal safely and effectively.

    Alternative and integrative treatments

    Several alternative — now known as integrative — forms of headache treatment are available, but it is important to consult a doctor before making any major changes or beginning any new treatments.

    Some of these approaches include:

    • acupuncture
    • cognitive behavioral therapy
    • herbal and nutritional health products
    • hypnosis
    • meditation

    Research has not shown that all of these methods work, however.

    Some evidence has suggested that migraine episodes may be more likely to occur when a person has low levels of magnesium and vitamin D. While the evidence is not conclusive, a person may find that taking 400–500 milligrams of magnesium oxide per day helps prevent episodes.

    Nutrient deficiencies may result from the quality of a person’s diet, malabsorption issues, or other medical conditions.

    Learn more about using magnesium to treat migraine.

    Home remedies

    Certain care strategies can help prevent headaches or ease the pain. A person could:

    • Use a heat or ice pack against the head or neck, but avoid extreme temperatures, and never apply ice directly to the skin.
    • Avoid stressors whenever possible, and use healthful coping strategies for unavoidable stress.
    • Eat regular meals, taking care to maintain stable blood sugar levels.
    • Get enough sleep, by following a regular routine and keeping the bedroom cool, dark, and quiet.
    • Exercise regularly to boost overall health and lower stress.
    • Limit alcohol intake and drink plenty of water.
    • Take breaks when working to stretch and prevent eye strain.


    The characteristics of a headache — and the effects on daily life — can vary. A headache may:

    • affect one or both sides of the head
    • radiate from a central point
    • involve sharp, throbbing, or dull pain
    • have a vise-like quality
    • come on gradually or suddenly
    • last from under an hour to several days

    The features of the pain depend, to some extent, on the type of headache.

    Is it a headache or migraine episode? What is the difference?


    A doctor can usually diagnose a type of headache after asking the person about:

    • their symptoms
    • the type of pain
    • the timing and pattern of attacks

    In some cases, the doctor may perform or request tests to rule out more serious causes of head pain. The tests may involve blood samples or imaging, such as a CT or MRI scan.


    Many people experience more than one of the various types of headache.

    Anyone who experiences severe or reoccurring headaches should consult a doctor or otherwise receive professional care.

    Source: Medical News Today

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